"WE SWEAR BY THE SOUTHERN CROSS TO STAND TRULY BY EACH OTHER AND FIGHT TO DEFEND OUR RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES."
Miners and Aborigines on the goldfields: Carboni's Gilburnia and Aboriginal dispossession
by Don Longo
Carboni and Gilburnia
Raffaello Carboni is known to Australians as one of the leaders of the Eureka rebellion and the author of the only complete eye-witness account of the dramatic events that unfolded at Ballarat in late 1854. Other aspects of his eventful and restless life are less remembered, such as his activity as a republican revolutionary in Italy in the 1840s, his wanderings across Europe, Asia and the Middle East, his work among Garibaldi’s Red Shirts and the Expedition of the Thousand in the 1860s. He also struggled to be recognised as a writer in Italy after he left Australia in 1856 until his death in Rome in October 1874, alone and penniless, aged 57.